Monday, October 24, 2011

Why interest rates will rise... And inflation too.

It's policy time again and as usual, speculation about the RBI's stance later today is more than rife. Some commentators feel that the RBI has hiked rates enough. Others feel that more hikes are warranted as inflation continues to remain at ridiculously high levels. Both sides, however, fail to provide for the anomalies of the Indian economy and suitability of traditional policy instruments to the task at hand.

Theoretically, when faced with high inflation, a central bank hikes interest rates which serves to reduce inflation in two ways. Firstly, higher interest rates suppress domestic demand which robs local businesses of pricing power. Reduced domestic demand also reduces the quantum of imports which results in improved balance of payments and currency appreciation. This, in turn, lowers the price of imported goods with it's consequent salutary impact on inflation.

Secondly, in an open economy, higher interest rates attract foreign capital which results in currency appreciation and hence, lower prices for imported goods which in turn serves to ease inflationary pressures. This impact, however, can manifest only when the country in question has an open capital account for debt flows.

When analyzing the applicability of these theoretical outcomes to India, one is immediately aware of a critical gap. India's capital account is completely open only for equity flows, not debt flows. As a result, higher interest rates are seldom accompanied by greater inflows of foreign capital. In fact, as higher interest rates squeeze domestic economic activity and corporate profitability, foreign equity flows reduce or even reverse. This worsens the balance of payments and can, and frequently does, result in currency depreciation at such times. As the currency depreciates, the prices of imported goods rise which adds to inflationary pressures rather than easing them. This makes it extremely likely that in India, with the existing framework, higher interest rates will cause higher inflation rather than combatting it.

Recent evidence supports this theory almost completely. For the second time in the last 4 years one can witness the currency collapsing and inflation increasing as interest rates rise. When inflation subsided somewhat in 2008/2009 as international commodity prices crashed it gave the RBI the unfortunate impression of a monetary policy success. With the RBI looking to replicate this 'success' once again, it is more than likely that interest rates will rise once again later today. And in the absence of a complete collapse in international commodity prices, so will inflation.


  1. Dear Rajiv,

    If your theory is right..What is the Central Bank's reason for increased rates...Can you give the Central Bank's perspective ?

  2. Allowing investment in short term debt to make the currency appreciate will make our imports cheaper so improved balance of payments but at the same time it will have a negative impact on exports. India,wanting to promote its exports as much as possible will not like to take this chance. Secondly allowing investment in debt instruments(short term) also brings with it high amount of volatility during times of change in business cycle. Though the facts u mentioned in the above post can not be neglected.

  3. Hey keep posting such good and meaningful articles.

  4. من المعروف ان نظافة المنازل من بين اهم الخدمات الضرورية في التنظيف والترقية بمنازلنا الى مصاف المنازل العصرية والتي عرفت تنظيفا عصريا من شانه ان يوفر لساكنته ظروفا حياتية راقية ولابد من توفر هيئة تختص في المجال مع تقديم ضمانات متكاملة من شانه ان تجعل الافراد يضمنون نجاح خدمة التنظيف ولا حاجة للمزيد من ضياع الاموال عبر طلبات خدمة نظافة المنازل التي لا تلبي حاجياتهم ولا تتماشى مع رغباتهم لأن العديد من شركات تنظيف المنازل تسعى فقط الى عرض خدماتها عبر طرق ترويجية فحسب من اجل كسب المال فقط دون مراعاة الوازع الاخلاقي والضمير المهني الذي يحتم على مدراء مثل هاته الشركات ان يسعوا خلف ارضاء العملاء ليس اكثر من هذا عبر اتقان تنظيف المنازل شركة تنظيف خزانات بالرياض
    شركة نظافة عامة بالرياض
    شركة نقل عفش بالرياض
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض
    شركة تنظيف منازل بالرياض
    شركة رش مبيد بالرياض

  5. هل تبحث عن شركة متخصصة فى الخدمات المنزلية بتبوك اذن عليك بالانضمام لافضل شركة تنظيف ومكافحة حشرات وتسليك مجارى بتبوك تمتلك الشركة العمالة الفنية المدربة كما ان الشركة تستخدم احدث المعدات فى التنظيف ومكافحة الحشرات وتسليك المجارى والجدير بالذكر ان شركتنا افضل شركة نقل وتخزين عفش بتبوك وبالمملكة العربية السعودية ويرجع ذالك الى خبرة شركتنا فى مجال نقل العفش معا الفك والتركيب والضمان اتصل بنا ولا تتردد . شركة تنظيف بتبوك
    شركة تنظيف خزانات بتبوك
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بتبوك
    شركة نقل عفش بتبوك
    شركة تسليك مجارى بتبوك
    /> شركة نقل عفش بالخرج
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخرج
    شركة تنظيف بالخرج

  6. Interest rates have been very low for many years now. There has been talk about interest rates rising, which is evidenced by the bond market. What do you do with your money if interest rates rise?
    guarantor loans

  7. I really love this post I will visit again to read your post in a very short time and I hope you will make more posts like this.
    cara menggugurkan kandungan
    obat penggugur kandungan
    cara menggugurkan hamil